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 The Dream Shall Never Die

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Artie60438

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Posts : 9640

PostSubject: Re: The Dream Shall Never Die   4/11/2018, 4:13 pm

Trump Worshiping Moron Who Can't Even Remember What He Posts wrote:
Artchel 60438 wrote:
happy jack wrote:
Artchel 60438 wrote:
   
I'll take the word of medical professionals. You OTOH can continue to wallow in the conspiracy swamps of Planet Wingnuttia. Sleep

What conspiracy?
Whether the bloated drunk left a woman to die from drowning or from asphyxia is really kind of irrelevant.
Yet you were the one who introduced it Shocked

happy jack wrote:
The bloated drunk nevertheless left a woman to die without lifting one of his fat sausage-fingers to help her.
Once again you make bullshit claims that you have no chance of proving. Exactly like your hero Trump. Shocked

Just to be clear - you are perfectly fine with the fact that AquaTed left a woman to die due to drowning, but for some reason, had she been abandoned and left to die due to asphyxiation, that would have somehow not been OK with you.
Does that pretty much sum up your thought process (as limited as that process is)?
My thoughts are this: The only 2 people at the tragedy were Sen Kennedy and Kopechne. Now you can keep jerking off and fantasizing about what you wish had happened but I've got better things to do. You continue to amaze me with your stupidity.Sleep
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happy jack

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PostSubject: Re: The Dream Shall Never Die   4/11/2018, 5:49 pm

happy jack wrote:
Just to be clear - you are perfectly fine with the fact that AquaTed left a woman to die due to drowning, but for some reason, had she been abandoned and left to die due to asphyxiation, that would have somehow not been OK with you.
Does that pretty much sum up your thought process (as limited as that process is)?



Artchel 60438 wrote:
My thoughts are this: The only 2 people at the tragedy were Sen Kennedy and Kopechne.


And of those two, Mary Jo Kopechne was left to die a slow and nasty death, while the 'Lion Dolphin of the Senate' went to sleep one off.


Artchel 60438 wrote:
Now you can keep jerking off and fantasizing about what you wish had happened but I've got better things to do.


I have no need to fantasize about what happened, as it is crystal clear and indisputable - a bloated drunk drove off of a bridge and left his 'date' to drown.
Or are you privy to an alternate scenario known only by a select few?
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Artie60438

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PostSubject: Re: The Dream Shall Never Die   4/15/2018, 3:40 pm

cyclops Required Reading For Trump Worshiping Footwipes cyclops

ACCOMPLISHMENTS OF SENATOR KENNEDY
1962-2009
Senator Kennedy has authored more than 2,500 bills throughout his career in the United
States Senate.  Of those bills, several hundred have
become Public Law.  Below is a sample of some
of those laws, which have made a significant di
fference in the quality of life for the American
people.  
*Note:  For bills introduced prior to 1973, Senate records do not list cosponsors.  From 1973 to
2009, 552 items cosponsored by Sena
tor Kennedy became Public Law.
Fighting for Quality, Affordable Health Care
Throughout his Senate career, Senator Kennedy has championed the cause of quality health
care for all Americans.  Among the many landmark laws enacted under his leadership and
sponsorship are the Protection and Advocacy for Me
ntally Ill Individuals Act of 1986, the Nutrition
Labeling and Education Act of 1990, the American
s with Disabilities Act of 1990, the Ryan White
Comprehensive AIDS Resources Emergency Act of
1990, the National Institutes of Health
Revitalization Act of 1993, the Freedom of Access to Clinic Entrances Act of 1994, the Health
Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996, the Food and Drug Administration
Modernization Act of 1997, the creation of the
Children’s Health Insurance Program (CHIP) in  
1997 (“HIPAA”), the Children's Health Act of
2000, the Project BioShield Act of 2003, the
Pandemic and All-Hazards Preparedness Act of 2005, the FDA Amendments Act of 2007, and the
Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act of 2008.
Pursuing Comprehensive Health Coverage
Throughout his career, Senator Kennedy has fought to ensure that all Americans have access
to high quality, affordable health care. This was the cause of his life.  
It began in 1966 when Senator Kennedy visited the Columbia Point Health Center in Boston
- a successful clinic bringing health care to low-
income residents of the community.  Kennedy came
away impressed with the clinic’s ability to prov
ide treatment to low-income populations. He was
aware of a similar clinic in Mound Bayou, Mississippi.  He saw in Columbia Point and Mound Bayou
a model for the nation and introduced an amendm
ent to the Economic Opportunity Act that set
aside
$51 million
to get another
30 centers
started around the country. Today, as a direct result of
Sen. Kennedy’s vision as a 34-
year-old, first-term senator,
20 million low-income Americans
receive access to quality primary care at
1,200 community health centers
across
all 50 states and
U.S. territories
.
Senator Kennedy’s success replicating the Columbia Point and Mound Bayou Health Center
model across the country was the very beginning of
his long journey to make health a care right for
all Americans, not a privilege of the few.  
It was 1969 when Senator Kennedy, recognizing
the success of Medicare for senior citizens,
first called for universal health care for all Americ
ans.  “We must begin to move now to establish a
comprehensive national health insurance program, ca
pable of bringing the same amount and high
quality of health care to every man, woman, and child
in the United States,” Kennedy said at Boston
University Medical Center on December 16, 1969. (Click
here
to read the entire speech.)
Senator Kennedy has spent his public life figh
ting for comprehensive health care for all
Americans and, over the decades, tens of millions
have benefitted from his sustained efforts.  
In 1985, he led the successful fight to enact the provisions in the Consolidated Omnibus
Budget Reconciliation Act (COBRA),
which today gives American workers the right to temporarily
continue their employer health coverage when they lose their jobs and their insurance would
otherwise end.  
In 1996, Senator Kennedy and Senator Nancy Kassebaum sponsored the Health Insurance
Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) which ensures access to health care coverage for an
estimated
25 million Americans
who move from one job to another, are self-employed or have
pre-existing medical conditions.
As part of the Balanced Budget Act of 19
97, and through the persistent leadership of
Senator Kennedy and his colleague, Senator O
rrin Hatch, Congress established the bipartisan
Children’s Health Insurance Program (CHIP) to suppor
t state efforts to provide health insurance to
uninsured children in low-income families.  In co
mbination with their own funds, states could use
the federal funds to expand Medicaid coverage or establish a separate state child health insurance
program.  
After he shepherded the landmark measur
e through Congress, Senator Kennedy called it,
“the most far-reaching step that Congress has ever taken to help the nation’s children and the most
far-reaching advance in health care since the enac
tment of Medicare and Medicaid a generation ago.”
A decade after enactment, over
seven million children
were enrolled in Kennedy’s
program, which was reauthorized and expanded
in 2009 to cover four
million additional
children
, including legal immigrants who—for the fi
rst time—will not face a waiting period for
access to health care coverage. More than
11 million children
are expected to be enrolled annually
in the coming years.  
In early 2005, Senator Kennedy and seventeen
other Senators introduced the Affordable
Health Care Act which would make prescription dr
ugs more affordable by allowing importation;
allow small business employers a refundable tax credit for a share their employee health insurance
costs; expand insurance coverage under Medicaid and the Children’s Health Insurance programs to
children, pregnant women, and legal immigran
ts; and utilize health information technology to
improve the quality and efficiency of heal
th care delivery for all Americans.
In 2006, Senator Kennedy and Senator Chuck
Grassley passed the Family Opportunity Act,
which provides states with the opportunity to expa
nd Medicaid coverage to children with special
needs, giving low- and middle-income families wi
th disabled children the opportunity to purchase
health coverage under Medicaid.  The bipartisan law enables parents to work and earn above-
poverty wages without fear of losing
Medicaid coverage for their ch
ildren.  For many children with
disabilities, Medicaid is the only health insurance
program offering sufficient benefits to cover the
required care, such as physical therapy and medical equipment.
More than 250,000 children
are
expected to benefit from the Kennedy-Grassley provision.  
From 1997 to 2008, Senator Kennedy was the central and driving force behind a sustained,
bipartisan effort with historic results – the expansion of quality and affordable healthcare to more
than
750,000 previously uninsured
Massachusetts residents.
This historic achievement was the result of
four “Section 1115” Medicaid waivers given to
the Commonwealth from the Federal government: 1997, 2002, 2005 and 2008. The 1115 waiver
allows states to vary from the otherwise strict
rules governing state administration of Medicaid.  
Massachusetts used the waiver to greatly expand coverage to previously uninsured persons,
especially through the 1997 and 2005 waivers.  Th
e 2002 and 2008 waivers were largely continuation
waivers of the prior formulations.  
Though Massachusetts had four governors during
this eleven year period (Weld, Swift,
Romney and Patrick) and all but one of those (Patrick) being a Republican, Senator Kennedy
worked diligently, across party lines and with sta
te and national leaders to secure the waivers.  
Moreover, Senator Kennedy’s efforts regarding th
e 2005 waiver were particularly critical to
the Commonwealth’s passage of health reform
in 2006.  Under the 1997 and 2002 waivers,
Massachusetts received substantial and extraordin
ary “supplemental payments” for Boston Medical
Center and the Cambridge Health Alliance amountin
g to about $400 million a year by 2005.  In
2004, looking ahead to the 2005 renewal, the Bush
Administration indicated their clear intent to end
the supplemental payments.  Senator Kennedy teamed with Republican Governor Romney to
convince the Bush Administration to continue the pa
yments as long as th
ey were used to subsidize
insurance coverage for individuals and not used for subsidies to institutions.  This became the
essential, core formula embedded in the 20
06 Massachusetts health reform law.  
The Commonwealth’s health reform law has b
een extraordinarily successful in meeting its
intent. The
percent of uninsured
in the state has dropped
from about ten percent
in 2006
to
about 2.6 percent
in 2008.  An estimated 420,000 persons have obtained quality, affordable
coverage because of the 2006 law. The 1996-97 waiv
er led to an expansion in coverage for about
350,000 lower income individuals in the state, es
pecially children.  Senator Kennedy used the 1996-
97 Massachusetts formulation as his initial model in devising what became the federal CHIP
program in July 1997.  
The Affordable Health Choices Act
Despite   his   cancer   diagnosis   in   May   2008
,   Senator   Kennedy   provided   extraordinary  
leadership that laid the groundwork for national he
alth reform in 2009. Under his direction, in the
summer of 2008 his staff held countless meetings wi
th representatives from constituency groups and
major stakeholders.  
Balancing  his  work  on  health  reform  with  his  treatment,  Kennedy  stayed  in  constant  
communication with his staff and colleag
ues via phone and videoconferences.  
And  shortly  after  the  Presidential  election,
 Kennedy  divided  his  Committee  into  three  
working  groups:    Prevention  and  Wellness,  led  by
 Senator  Tom  Harkin;  Delivery  System  Reform,  
led  by  Senator  Barbara  Mikulski;  and  Coverage  le
d  by  Senator  Jeff  Bingaman.  Together,  Kennedy  
and  the  working  group  leaders  held  over  dozen  hearings.  Senator  Christopher  Dodd,  the  number  
two Democrat on the Committee and a close personal fr
iend of Kennedy’s, served as Chief Deputy
for Reform.  
In July of 2009, the Health, Education, Labor and Pensions (HELP) Committee passed
The
Affordable  Health  Choices  Act,
 landmark  legislation  that  will  reduce  
health  costs,  protect  individuals’  
choice  in  doctors  and  plans,  and  assure  quality  and  affordable  health  care  for  all  Americans  –  the  
first committee in Congress to heed President Obama’s call for comprehensive health reform.  
The  legislation  builds  on  the  existing  emplo
yer-based  system  and  strengthens  it.  If  people  
like  the  health  insurance  they  have,  they  get  to  keep  it.  The  bill  provides  better  choices  for  those  
with no coverage now, and those for
whom coverage is unaffordable.
It also gives small businesses
better options for high value health coverage.  
Under the insurance reforms in the bill
,
no American can be refused health coverage because
of  a  preexisting  medical  condition,  or  have  that
 coverage  denied  when  they  need  it  most.    No  
American  will  ever  again  be  subject  to  annual  
or  lifetime  limits  on  their  coverage,  or  see  it  
terminated arbitrarily to avoid paying claims.
The bill reduces health care costs through str
onger prevention, better quality of care, and use
of  information  technology.  It  also  roots  out  fraud  and  abuse,  reduces  unnecessary  procedures,  and  
creates  a  system  that  enables  everyone  to  obta
in  insurance,  thereby  gaining  access  to  doctors,  
medication  and  procedures  essential  for  preventi
on  and  disease  management.  By  sharing  in  this  
responsibility, our nearly 50 million uninsured fellow
 citizens  will  avoid  elev
enth-hour  treatment  in  
emergency rooms that drive up costs for everyone else.  
Shared  responsibility  requires  that  everyone  -  government,  insurance  companies,  medical  
providers,  individuals  and
employers  -  has  a  part  in  solving  America’s  health  care  crisis.    The  bill  
requires  businesses  which  do  not  provide  coverage  
for  their  workers  to  contribute  to  the  cost  of  
providing  publicly  sponsored  coverage  for  those  workers.  It  includes  an  exception  for  small  
businesses.  
It also includes a
strong public option that responds to
the wishes of the American people to
have  a  clear  alternative  to  for-profit  insuran
ce  companies.  Like  private  insurance  plans,  the  
Community  Health  Insurance  Option  will  be  ava
ilable  through  the  American  Health  Benefit  
Gateway,  a  new  mechanism  to  enable  individuals  an
d  small  employers  in  every  state  to  find  and  
purchase quality and affordable health insurance.  
Securing Funding to Support HI
V/AIDS Treatment and Care  
Senator Kennedy sponsored legislation in 1986 to establish a network of education and
outpatient services for individuals infected with
the AIDS virus.  Two years later, he successfully
secured funding for the first substantial federal initia
tive related to AIDS treatment.  Included in a
catch-all health spending measure, Kennedy’s pr
ovisions expanded home and community care of
victims, made for easier access to experimental
drugs, and created a new national commission to
establish AIDS policy.  
In 1990, Senator Kennedy and Senator Orrin
Hatch introduced the groundbreaking Ryan
White Comprehensive AIDS Resources Emergency A
ct, which created the single largest federal
program for people with HIV/AIDS in the U.S.
The law provided emergency relief to thirteen
cities hardest hit by the AIDS epidemic as well as
substantial assistance to all states to develop
effective and cost-efficient AIDS care programs, aime
d particularly at early diagnosis and home care.  
Other services included in the bill were drug trea
tment, dental care, substance abuse treatment, and
outpatient mental health care. The program has
been authorized by Congress three times since it
was first created.
In 1991, Kennedy sponsored legislation to re
organize the Alcohol, Dr
ug Abuse, and Mental
Health Administration.  Specifically, it separated
the previously combined treatment and research
branches of the department, which improved the
capacity to effectively address both the prevention
and treatment of substance abuse and mental health.
The Ryan White CARE Act reauthorization
of 2000 reaffirmed Senator Kennedy’s
commitment to providing access for persons with
HIV disease to life-sustaining medications,
medical care and other essential services.  The
Act authorized nearly $9 billion in HIV/AIDS
services over the next five years.  According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, at
that time, AIDS had claimed over 425,000 lives so
far in the United States and the epidemic was
infecting an additional 40,000 people each year. Th
ere is good reason to be encouraged by the
medical advances over the past ten years –but
HIV/AIDS is hitting hardest in areas where
knowledge about the disease is limi
ted and poverty is high.  The disease continues to claim the most
vulnerable Americans, especially women, youth and minorities.
In 2006, Senator Kennedy and Senator Enzi led
the last reauthorization of Ryan White
with a clear focus on bringing
this legislation into the 21
st
century.  The law now ensures that
money follows the infection no matter where you live;
that families are given the help they need
to support a family member living with HIV; a
nd that medical care, in
cluding drug therapy, as
well as support services
are a priority.    
An estimated 800,000 to 900,000 Americ
ans were living with HIV/AIDS in 2009.
The
federal government estimates that at least 500,00
0 persons rely in part or solely on CARE Act
services in managing their HIV disease.  The passage
of this landmark legislation means hundreds of
thousands of persons who would be unable to affo
rd care otherwise will continue to have hope for
quality care.
The law increases targeted resources to states, heavily affected metropolitan areas,
community-based primary care centers, and programs
that serve women, infants, youth, and families
with HIV.
Creating a Federal Funding Stream to Feed
the Elderly, Support Women and Children  
In 1971, Kennedy introduced legislation to crea
te a federal initiative patterned on volunteer
programs in several states to feed the elderly, eith
er with meals delivered to their homes or in group
settings.  Kennedy’s bill established permanent fe
deral subsidies for these programs (the first was
$250 million over two years
), and he fought the Nixon Admi
nistration’s attempts to completely
eliminate funding. In 2007,
141 million meals
were delivered to
916,000 individuals
and
95
million meals
were provided to
1.6 million seniors in community locations
. It is estimated that
over 6 billion meals
have been served since Kennedy’s bill was signed into law.
Said Kennedy on March 7, 1972: “A decade ag
o, elderly Americans comprised 15 percent of
the nation’s poor. Yet today, our se
nior citizens represent 20 per
cent of the nation’s citizens who
must exist on income below the poverty line. The re
strictions placed on elderly Americans by their
meager incomes makes it easy to understand wh
y they have difficulty providing themselves with
adequate diets.  
“But more than adequate income plagues the nation’s aged. The elderly, particularly the
single elderly, lack the physical mobility to make
weekly trips to the market. Many of them live in
rented rooms with inadequate kitchen facilities.
And most have little nutritional education which
would permit them to prepare a balanced diet, ev
en if there were no other obstacles,” Kennedy said.

Essentially, this measure, which I introduced early in the first session of this Congress with
some twenty other Senators as cosponsors, will
provide a permanent nationwide nutrition program
for the elderly, a program that will offer nutritio
us meals in a setting where the elderly can come
together in social activities and in a setting wh
ere they will have access to other social services.

Click
here
to read the entire statement.  
In 1972 Kennedy was also a prominent figure in establishing the Women, Infants, and
Children Nutrition Program (WIC).  The program o
ffers food, nutrition counseling, and access to
health services for low-income women, infants,
and children. The first year WIC was authorized,
88,000 women and children
participated. In 2008 alone, that number had grown to
8.7 million
.
Enhancing Bioterror
ism Preparedness
           As the threat for bioterrorism
increased during the last ten years of Kennedy’s Senate
service, he worked aggressively to establish the
governmental infrastructure necessary to protect the
American public.
In 2000, Senator Kennedy was the chief sponsor of bipartisan legislation, the
Public Health Threats and Emergencies Act, whic
h – by strengthening the nation’s public health
infrastructure and required planning for public
health emergencies - laid the groundwork for
essential improvements to our public health prepar
edness against bioterrorism.  His planning proved
invaluable when the nation faced anthrax attacks the following year.  
And following the September 11
th
, 2001 terrorist attacks and the subsequent mailings of
anthrax to Capitol Hill offices, Senator Kennedy an
d Senator Bill Frist, steered the Bioterrorism
Preparedness Act into law in June of 2002.   The bi
partisan legislation made needed investments in
the nation’s stockpiles of antibiotics, helped
upgrade federal capacities to prevent and detect
bioterrorism, improved the state and local res
ponse efforts, and developed new treatments and
diagnostics.   The bill has been essential to improving America's response to infectious disease
threats such as SARS and the new H1N1 flu strain.
Additionally it provided the Food and Drug
Administration (FDA) increased authority to
ensure the safety of the nation’s food supply
.
Not soon thereafter, Kennedy sponsored and
helped pass the Project BioShield Act, which
created a federal funding stream to guide Amer
ica’s medical and biotechnology researchers in
creating stronger defenses to bioterrorism.  Univer
sities and research institutions in the Boston, and
across the country, have capitalized on the initiative, and are leading the way in developing several
new biodefense countermeasures, including vaccines and immunizations.  Additionally, the program
accelerated research at the National Institutes fo
r Health (NIH) on biological and chemical weapons,
and authorized the Food and Drug Administrati
on (FDA) to allow the safe emergency use of
unapproved medicines if needed to respond to an attack.
In 2006, Senator Kennedy worked to pass the
Pandemic and All-Hazards Preparedness Act,
which complements the activities of Project BioShield by streamlining the countermeasure
procurement process and making funding decisi
ons more transparent and predictable.  
Providing Resources for Medical Research  
           As a longtime champion of biomed
ical research, Senator Kennedy was the sponsor of the
National Institutes of Health (NIH) Revitalizati
on Act of 1993 and its reauthorization in 2003,
which included more than 20 titles directing th
e NIH to undertake research and conduct studies on
various diseases and conditions including AIDS, breast and ovarian cancer, osteoporosis and bone
disorders, contraception and infertility, and prosta
te cancer. The law also provided legislative
authority for various activities, such as the National Center for Human Genome Research, the
Office of Minority Health, and the Office of Research on Women’s Health. The bill permanently
lifted the ban on federally funded fetal tissue tran
splantation research and authorized the NIH to
conduct such research, created an Office of AIDS
Research whose director would disburse all
AIDS-related funding to the institutes, and required the NIH to convene an Interagency
Coordinating Committee on the Use of Animals in Research.
He has consistently and aggressively fought for increased research funding through the NIH
budget and his efforts paid off between FY 1998
– FY 20003, when NIH’s budget doubled from
$13.6 billion to $27 billion.  
Said Kennedy in 1993, “From a beginning as
a one-room Laboratory of Hygiene in 1887, the
National Institutes of Health have grown into
one of the foremost biomedical and behavioral
science research centers in the world. The resear
ch supported or conducted by NIH continues to
offer the promise of improving the health, welfare and quality of life of all Americans well into the
next century. With each year, the NIH discov
ers new scientific knowledge to improve the
prevention and treatment of disease.”  
Cancer
: Two decades earlier, Kennedy was respons
ible for legislation passed in 1971 that
quadrupled the amount of funding for cancer research and prevention, financed with an
independently-budgeted program within NIH.  The day before passage, Kennedy said, “The
conquest of cancer is a special problem of such
enormous concern to all Americans.  We can quote
statistics, but I think every one of us in this body, and most families across the country, have been
touched by this disease one way or another.”
In 1992, amid serious concerns regarding the quality of mammography, Kennedy
cosponsored and Congress passed the Mammography
Quality Standards Act to ensure the safety
and accuracy of mammograms, and to promote th
e use of the procedure.  Kennedy helped
introduce the reauthorization of the bill in the 108
th
Congress.  The reauthorization established
appropriations for breast cancer screening surveil
lance grants, which are used to evaluate screening
programs.
Senator Kennedy was a strong supporter of legisl
ation to increase research and education on
blood cancers, including leukemia, lymphoma, and mu
ltiple myeloma.  While over eleven percent of
all cancer deaths are attributed to these forms of
cancer, less than five percent of federal funds for
cancer research are dedicated prevention and treatm
ent.  The Hematological Cancer Investment and
Education Act authorized the National Institutes
of Health (NIH) to expand and coordinate blood
cancer research, and directed the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) to provide
information to patients and the general public to raise awareness of the disease.
On March 26, 2009, Senators Edward M. Kennedy and Kay Bailey Hutchison introduced
the 21st Century Cancer Access to Life-Saving Ea
rly detection, Research and Treatment (ALERT)
Act, a bill to comprehensively address cancer.  Th
e bill provides funding for promising research in
early detection, and supply grants for screening and
referrals for treatment. These measures will also
ensure patient access to prevention and early dete
ction, which is supplemented by increased access
to clinical trials and information.  The bill places
an emphasis on strengthening cancer research and
the urgent need for resources to both prevent and d
etect cancers at an early st
age. The bill strives to
give scientists the tools they need to fight cancer and to understand more thoroughly how the
disease works.
Senator Kennedy also fought to improve screening rates for diseases such as colorectal
cancer.  As he worked to ensure provisions gr
anting colorectal cancer screening to Medicare
beneficiaries, Senator Kennedy in the 108
th
Congress, introduced the “Eliminate Colorectal Cancer
Act”, which would have made colorectal cancer
screenings available to many Americans.
Senator Kennedy has been a strong advocate of health services research, including research
on what is effective in health care.  He suppor
ted provisions in the American Recovery and
Reinvestment Act of 2009, which will add $1.1
billion in research funds for comparative
effectiveness research.
Working to Reduce Medical Errors and Preventable Death
After learning that preventable medical errors
were the eighth leading cause of death in the
United States, Senator Kennedy pursued le
gislation to improve patient safety.  
In 2004, he sponsored a bill to provide legal protections to those willing to report medical
errors. By calling for a patient safety research en
vironment centered on reporting and analyzing as
opposed to punitive action, the bill encouraged
health care providers to report information on
errors.  The Senate and the House of Representati
ves both passed versions of Senator Kennedy’s
bill, but the legislation stalled in conference committee.  
In 2005 and again in 2007, Senator Kennedy
introduced bipartisan legislation to reduce
medical costs and improve the delivery of health ca
re by encouraging the use of health information
technology. In 2009 Senator Kennedy championed
provisions of the American Recovery and
Reinvestment Act which included $19 billion of in
centives for the adoption of health information
technology and strong protections for patient medical information.  
The Department of Health and Human Services
predicts that health IT can save Americans
$140 billion in health care costs each year.  Na
tionally accessible computerized medical records can
warn doctors when a prescription may be potentially harmful to a patient, regardless of where the
patient is located in the country.  In addition, he
alth IT can issue reminders for screening tests that
can prevent certain disorders, and enables doctors to
look at a patient’s entire medical record, and
obtain the most complete representation of a patien
t’s needs.  Senator Kennedy’s legislation will
accelerate the development of standards for health
IT, improve the effectiveness of this promising
technology, and provide grants to hospitals to convert to the system.  
Protecting Children and Consumers from th
e Deadly Effects of Tobacco Products
For over a decade Senator Kennedy led the batt
le to give the Food & Drug Administration
(FDA) power to regulate tobacco products, the most l
ethal of all consumer products.  The legislative
journey was long and arduous but, in the end, Kennedy’s bill marked more than a victory for him
and others who long championed the cause. It was a life saving act for the millions of children who
will be spared a lifetime of addiction and premature death.    
At the time of bill’s enactment, smoking was
the number one preventable cause of death in
America. Smoking and smoking-related illness killed
more people than automobile accidents, alcohol
abuse, illegal drugs, AIDS, murder, and suicide combined. Yet prior to Kennedy’s landmark
legislation, the FDA - the federal agency most re
sponsible for protecting the public health - was
powerless to deal with the enormous risks of tobacco use.
His legislation was supported by the Amer
ican Cancer Society, the American Heart
Association, the American Lung Association, the
American Medical Association, the Campaign for
Tobacco-Free Kids and over eighty other na
tional public health organizations.  
Kennedy’s bipartisan victory gives the FDA th
e authority to, among other provisions, make
tobacco products less toxic and less addictive for those who continue to use them, provides for
more explicit warning labels on the negative effects
of cigarettes, prevents the tobacco industry from
misleading the public about the dangers of smok
ing and prohibits tobacco advertising specifically
targeted to children.  The entire cost for FDA’s regulation is paid by the tobacco companies,
apportioned amongst the companies based on their market share.
When his bill was finally signed into law Ke
nnedy said, “Today is a day for special
celebration as President Obama signs into law this long-overdue authority for FDA to regulate
tobacco products.  Decade after decade, Big
Tobacco has seduced millions of teenagers into
lifetimes of addiction and premature death.  Enactmen
t of this legislation will finally put a stop to
that.  It is truly a life-saving
act, and a welcome demonstration th
at this Congress is capable of
enacting major health reform.”
Protecting Consumers through En
hanced Drug and Device Safety
While Senator Kennedy is well known for his ef
forts to seek bipartisan consensus to bring
about legislative success, he was never afraid to sa
il against the wind if the cause was right and the
end just.  
In an effort to increase consumer protection,
he was the author and sole Senate sponsor of
the Medical Device Amendments of 1976, which
provided comprehensive regulation of medical
devices for the first time ever.  
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happy jack

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Posts : 6355

PostSubject: Re: The Dream Shall Never Die   4/16/2018, 4:25 am

Required reading for Ted 'Neptune' Kennedy-worshipping asswipes

ACCOMPLISHMENTS OF MARY JO KOPECHNE
1969 - PRESENT



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happy jack

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PostSubject: Re: The Dream Shall Never Die   4/16/2018, 6:35 am

Artie60438 wrote:
cyclops Required Reading For Trump Worshiping Footwipes cyclops

ACCOMPLISHMENTS OF SENATOR KENNEDY
1962-2009
Senator Kennedy has authored more than 2,500 bills throughout his career in the United
States Senate.  Of those bills, several hundred have
become Public Law.  Below is a sample of some
of those laws, which have made a significant di
fference in the quality of life for the American
people.  
*Note:  For bills introduced prior to 1973, Senate records do not list cosponsors.  From 1973 to
2009, 552 items cosponsored by Sena
tor Kennedy became Public Law.
Fighting for Quality, Affordable Health Care
Throughout his Senate career, Senator Kennedy has championed the cause of quality health
care for all Americans.  Among the many landmark laws enacted under his leadership and
sponsorship are the Protection and Advocacy for Me
ntally Ill Individuals Act of 1986, the Nutrition
Labeling and Education Act of 1990, the American
s with Disabilities Act of 1990, the Ryan White
Comprehensive AIDS Resources Emergency Act of
1990, the National Institutes of Health
Revitalization Act of 1993, the Freedom of Access to Clinic Entrances Act of 1994, the Health
Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996, the Food and Drug Administration
Modernization Act of 1997, the creation of the
Children’s Health Insurance Program (CHIP) in  
1997 (“HIPAA”), the Children's Health Act of
2000, the Project BioShield Act of 2003, the
Pandemic and All-Hazards Preparedness Act of 2005, the FDA Amendments Act of 2007, and the
Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act of 2008.
Pursuing Comprehensive Health Coverage
Throughout his career, Senator Kennedy has fought to ensure that all Americans have access
to high quality, affordable health care. This was the cause of his life.  
It began in 1966 when Senator Kennedy visited the Columbia Point Health Center in Boston
- a successful clinic bringing health care to low-
income residents of the community.  Kennedy came
away impressed with the clinic’s ability to prov
ide treatment to low-income populations. He was
aware of a similar clinic in Mound Bayou, Mississippi.  He saw in Columbia Point and Mound Bayou
a model for the nation and introduced an amendm
ent to the Economic Opportunity Act that set
aside
$51 million
to get another
30 centers
started around the country. Today, as a direct result of
Sen. Kennedy’s vision as a 34-
year-old, first-term senator,
20 million low-income Americans
receive access to quality primary care at
1,200 community health centers
across
all 50 states and
U.S. territories
.
Senator Kennedy’s success replicating the Columbia Point and Mound Bayou Health Center
model across the country was the very beginning of
his long journey to make health a care right for
all Americans, not a privilege of the few.
Left a young woman to die in his car while he sobered up.
It was 1969 when Senator Kennedy, recognizing
the success of Medicare for senior citizens,
first called for universal health care for all Americ
ans.  “We must begin to move now to establish a
comprehensive national health insurance program, ca
pable of bringing the same amount and high
quality of health care to every man, woman, and child
in the United States,” Kennedy said at Boston
University Medical Center on December 16, 1969. (Click
here
to read the entire speech.)
Senator Kennedy has spent his public life figh
ting for comprehensive health care for all
Americans and, over the decades, tens of millions
have benefitted from his sustained efforts.  
Left a young woman to die in his car while he sobered up.
In 1985, he led the successful fight to enact the provisions in the Consolidated Omnibus
Budget Reconciliation Act (COBRA),
which today gives American workers the right to temporarily
continue their employer health coverage when they lose their jobs and their insurance would
otherwise end.  
In 1996, Senator Kennedy and Senator Nancy Kassebaum sponsored the Health Insurance
Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) which ensures access to health care coverage for an
estimated
25 million Americans
who move from one job to another, are self-employed or have
pre-existing medical conditions.
As part of the Balanced Budget Act of 19
97, and through the persistent leadership of
Senator Kennedy and his colleague, Senator O
rrin Hatch, Congress established the bipartisan
Children’s Health Insurance Program (CHIP) to suppor
t state efforts to provide health insurance to
uninsured children in low-income families.  In co
mbination with their own funds, states could use
the federal funds to expand Medicaid coverage or establish a separate state child health insurance
program.  
Left a young woman to die in his car while he sobered up.After he shepherded the landmark measur
e through Congress, Senator Kennedy called it,
“the most far-reaching step that Congress has ever taken to help the nation’s children and the most
far-reaching advance in health care since the enac
tment of Medicare and Medicaid a generation ago.”
A decade after enactment, over
seven million children
were enrolled in Kennedy’s
program, which was reauthorized and expanded
in 2009 to cover four
million additional
children
, including legal immigrants who—for the fi
rst time—will not face a waiting period for
access to health care coverage. More than
11 million children
are expected to be enrolled annually
in the coming years.  
In early 2005, Senator Kennedy and seventeen
other Senators introduced the Affordable
Health Care Act which would make prescription dr
ugs more affordable by allowing importation;
allow small business employers a refundable tax credit for a share their employee health insurance
costs; expand insurance coverage under Medicaid and the Children’s Health Insurance programs to
children, pregnant women, and legal immigran
ts; and utilize health information technology to
improve the quality and efficiency of heal
th care delivery for all Americans.
In 2006, Senator Kennedy and Senator Chuck
Grassley passed the Family Opportunity Act,
which provides states with the opportunity to expa
nd Medicaid coverage to children with special
needs, giving low- and middle-income families wi
th disabled children the opportunity to purchase
health coverage under Medicaid.  The bipartisan law enables parents to work and earn above-
poverty wages without fear of losing
Medicaid coverage for their ch
ildren.  For many children with
disabilities, Medicaid is the only health insurance
program offering sufficient benefits to cover the
required care, such as physical therapy and medical equipment.
More than 250,000 children
are
expected to benefit from the Kennedy-Grassley provision.  
Left a young woman to die in his car while he sobered up.
From 1997 to 2008, Senator Kennedy was the central and driving force behind a sustained,
bipartisan effort with historic results – the expansion of quality and affordable healthcare to more
than
750,000 previously uninsured
Massachusetts residents.
This historic achievement was the result of
four “Section 1115” Medicaid waivers given to
the Commonwealth from the Federal government: 1997, 2002, 2005 and 2008. The 1115 waiver
allows states to vary from the otherwise strict
rules governing state administration of Medicaid.  
Massachusetts used the waiver to greatly expand coverage to previously uninsured persons,
especially through the 1997 and 2005 waivers.  Th
e 2002 and 2008 waivers were largely continuation
waivers of the prior formulations.  
Though Massachusetts had four governors during
this eleven year period (Weld, Swift,
Romney and Patrick) and all but one of those (Patrick) being a Republican, Senator Kennedy
worked diligently, across party lines and with sta
te and national leaders to secure the waivers.  
Moreover, Senator Kennedy’s efforts regarding th
e 2005 waiver were particularly critical to
the Commonwealth’s passage of health reform
in 2006.  Under the 1997 and 2002 waivers,
Massachusetts received substantial and extraordin
ary “supplemental payments” for Boston Medical
Center and the Cambridge Health Alliance amountin
g to about $400 million a year by 2005.  In
2004, looking ahead to the 2005 renewal, the Bush
Administration indicated their clear intent to end
the supplemental payments.  Senator Kennedy teamed with Republican Governor Romney to
convince the Bush Administration to continue the pa
yments as long as th
ey were used to subsidize
insurance coverage for individuals and not used for subsidies to institutions.  This became the
essential, core formula embedded in the 20
06 Massachusetts health reform law.  
The Commonwealth’s health reform law has b
een extraordinarily successful in meeting its
intent. The
percent of uninsured
in the state has dropped
from about ten percent
in 2006
to
about 2.6 percent
in 2008.  An estimated 420,000 persons have obtained quality, affordable
coverage because of the 2006 law. The 1996-97 waiv
er led to an expansion in coverage for about
350,000 lower income individuals in the state, es
pecially children.  Senator Kennedy used the 1996-
97 Massachusetts formulation as his initial model in devising what became the federal CHIP
program in July 1997.  
The Affordable Health Choices Act
Despite   his   cancer   diagnosis   in   May   2008
,   Senator   Kennedy   provided   extraordinary  
leadership that laid the groundwork for national he
alth reform in 2009. Under his direction, in the
summer of 2008 his staff held countless meetings wi
th representatives from constituency groups and
major stakeholders.  
Balancing  his  work  on  health  reform  with  his  treatment,  Kennedy  stayed  in  constant  
communication with his staff and colleag
ues via phone and videoconferences.  
And  shortly  after  the  Presidential  election,
 Kennedy  divided  his  Committee  into  three  
working  groups:    Prevention  and  Wellness,  led  by
 Senator  Tom  Harkin;  Delivery  System  Reform,  
led  by  Senator  Barbara  Mikulski;  and  Coverage  le
d  by  Senator  Jeff  Bingaman.  Together,  Kennedy  
and  the  working  group  leaders  held  over  dozen  hearings.  Senator  Christopher  Dodd,  the  number  
two Democrat on the Committee and a close personal fr
iend of Kennedy’s, served as Chief Deputy
for Reform.  
In July of 2009, the Health, Education, Labor and Pensions (HELP) Committee passed
The
Affordable  Health  Choices  Act,
 landmark  legislation  that  will  reduce  
health  costs,  protect  individuals’  
choice  in  doctors  and  plans,  and  assure  quality  and  affordable  health  care  for  all  Americans  –  the  
first committee in Congress to heed President Obama’s call for comprehensive health reform.  
The  legislation  builds  on  the  existing  emplo
yer-based  system  and  strengthens  it.  If  people  
like  the  health  insurance  they  have,  they  get  to  keep  it.  The  bill  provides  better  choices  for  those  
with no coverage now, and those for
whom coverage is unaffordable.
It also gives small businesses
better options for high value health coverage.  
Under the insurance reforms in the bill
,
no American can be refused health coverage because
of  a  preexisting  medical  condition,  or  have  that
 coverage  denied  when  they  need  it  most.    No  
American  will  ever  again  be  subject  to  annual  
or  lifetime  limits  on  their  coverage,  or  see  it  
terminated arbitrarily to avoid paying claims.
The bill reduces health care costs through str
onger prevention, better quality of care, and use
of  information  technology.  It  also  roots  out  fraud  and  abuse,  reduces  unnecessary  procedures,  and  
creates  a  system  that  enables  everyone  to  obta
in  insurance,  thereby  gaining  access  to  doctors,  
medication  and  procedures  essential  for  preventi
on  and  disease  management.  By  sharing  in  this  
responsibility, our nearly 50 million uninsured fellow
 citizens  will  avoid  elev
enth-hour  treatment  in  
emergency rooms that drive up costs for everyone else.  
Shared  responsibility  requires  that  everyone  -  government,  insurance  companies,  medical  
providers,  individuals  and
employers  -  has  a  part  in  solving  America’s  health  care  crisis.    The  bill  
requires  businesses  which  do  not  provide  coverage  
for  their  workers  to  contribute  to  the  cost  of  
providing  publicly  sponsored  coverage  for  those  workers.  It  includes  an  exception  for  small  
businesses.  
It also includes a
strong public option that responds to
the wishes of the American people to
have  a  clear  alternative  to  for-profit  insuran
ce  companies.  Like  private  insurance  plans,  the  
Community  Health  Insurance  Option  will  be  ava
ilable  through  the  American  Health  Benefit  
Gateway,  a  new  mechanism  to  enable  individuals  an
d  small  employers  in  every  state  to  find  and  
purchase quality and affordable health insurance.  
Securing Funding to Support HI
V/AIDS Treatment and Care  
Senator Kennedy sponsored legislation in 1986 to establish a network of education and
outpatient services for individuals infected with
the AIDS virus.  Two years later, he successfully
secured funding for the first substantial federal initia
tive related to AIDS treatment.  Included in a
catch-all health spending measure, Kennedy’s pr
ovisions expanded home and community care of
victims, made for easier access to experimental
drugs, and created a new national commission to
establish AIDS policy.  
In 1990, Senator Kennedy and Senator Orrin
Hatch introduced the groundbreaking Ryan
White Comprehensive AIDS Resources Emergency A
ct, which created the single largest federal
program for people with HIV/AIDS in the U.S.
The law provided emergency relief to thirteen
cities hardest hit by the AIDS epidemic as well as
substantial assistance to all states to develop
effective and cost-efficient AIDS care programs, aime
d particularly at early diagnosis and home care.  
Other services included in the bill were drug trea
tment, dental care, substance abuse treatment, and
outpatient mental health care. The program has
been authorized by Congress three times since it
was first created.
In 1991, Kennedy sponsored legislation to re
organize the Alcohol, Dr
ug Abuse, and Mental
Health Administration.  Specifically, it separated
the previously combined treatment and research
branches of the department, which improved the
capacity to effectively address both the prevention
and treatment of substance abuse and mental health.
The Ryan White CARE Act reauthorization
of 2000 reaffirmed Senator Kennedy’s
commitment to providing access for persons with
HIV disease to life-sustaining medications,
medical care and other essential services.  The
Act authorized nearly $9 billion in HIV/AIDS
services over the next five years.  According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, at
that time, AIDS had claimed over 425,000 lives so
far in the United States and the epidemic was
infecting an additional 40,000 people each year. Th
ere is good reason to be encouraged by the
medical advances over the past ten years –but
HIV/AIDS is hitting hardest in areas where
knowledge about the disease is limi
ted and poverty is high.  The disease continues to claim the most
vulnerable Americans, especially women, youth and minorities.
In 2006, Senator Kennedy and Senator Enzi led
the last reauthorization of Ryan White
with a clear focus on bringing
this legislation into the 21
st
century.  The law now ensures that
money follows the infection no matter where you live;
that families are given the help they need
to support a family member living with HIV; a
nd that medical care, in
cluding drug therapy, as
well as support services
are a priority.    
An estimated 800,000 to 900,000 Americ
ans were living with HIV/AIDS in 2009.
The
federal government estimates that at least 500,00
0 persons rely in part or solely on CARE Act
services in managing their HIV disease.  The passage
of this landmark legislation means hundreds of
thousands of persons who would be unable to affo
rd care otherwise will continue to have hope for
quality care.
The law increases targeted resources to states, heavily affected metropolitan areas,
community-based primary care centers, and programs
that serve women, infants, youth, and families
with HIV.
Creating a Federal Funding Stream to Feed
the Elderly, Support Women and Children  
In 1971, Kennedy introduced legislation to crea
te a federal initiative patterned on volunteer
programs in several states to feed the elderly, eith
er with meals delivered to their homes or in group
settings.  Kennedy’s bill established permanent fe
deral subsidies for these programs (the first was
$250 million over two years
), and he fought the Nixon Admi
nistration’s attempts to completely
eliminate funding. In 2007,
141 million meals
were delivered to
916,000 individuals
and
95
million meals
were provided to
1.6 million seniors in community locations
. It is estimated that
over 6 billion meals
have been served since Kennedy’s bill was signed into law.
Said Kennedy on March 7, 1972: “A decade ag
o, elderly Americans comprised 15 percent of
the nation’s poor. Yet today, our se
nior citizens represent 20 per
cent of the nation’s citizens who
must exist on income below the poverty line. The re
strictions placed on elderly Americans by their
meager incomes makes it easy to understand wh
y they have difficulty providing themselves with
adequate diets.  
“But more than adequate income plagues the nation’s aged. The elderly, particularly the
single elderly, lack the physical mobility to make
weekly trips to the market. Many of them live in
rented rooms with inadequate kitchen facilities.
And most have little nutritional education which
would permit them to prepare a balanced diet, ev
en if there were no other obstacles,” Kennedy said.

Essentially, this measure, which I introduced early in the first session of this Congress with
some twenty other Senators as cosponsors, will
provide a permanent nationwide nutrition program
for the elderly, a program that will offer nutritio
us meals in a setting where the elderly can come
together in social activities and in a setting wh
ere they will have access to other social services.

Click
here
to read the entire statement.  
In 1972 Kennedy was also a prominent figure in establishing the Women, Infants, and
Children Nutrition Program (WIC).  The program o
ffers food, nutrition counseling, and access to
health services for low-income women, infants,
and children. The first year WIC was authorized,
88,000 women and children
participated. In 2008 alone, that number had grown to
8.7 million
.
Enhancing Bioterror
ism Preparedness
           As the threat for bioterrorism
increased during the last ten years of Kennedy’s Senate
service, he worked aggressively to establish the
governmental infrastructure necessary to protect the
American public.
In 2000, Senator Kennedy was the chief sponsor of bipartisan legislation, the
Public Health Threats and Emergencies Act, whic
h – by strengthening the nation’s public health
infrastructure and required planning for public
health emergencies - laid the groundwork for
essential improvements to our public health prepar
edness against bioterrorism.  His planning proved
invaluable when the nation faced anthrax attacks the following year.  
And following the September 11
th
, 2001 terrorist attacks and the subsequent mailings of
anthrax to Capitol Hill offices, Senator Kennedy an
d Senator Bill Frist, steered the Bioterrorism
Preparedness Act into law in June of 2002.   The bi
partisan legislation made needed investments in
the nation’s stockpiles of antibiotics, helped
upgrade federal capacities to prevent and detect
bioterrorism, improved the state and local res
ponse efforts, and developed new treatments and
diagnostics.   The bill has been essential to improving America's response to infectious disease
threats such as SARS and the new H1N1 flu strain.
Additionally it provided the Food and Drug
Administration (FDA) increased authority to
ensure the safety of the nation’s food supply
.
Not soon thereafter, Kennedy sponsored and
helped pass the Project BioShield Act, which
created a federal funding stream to guide Amer
ica’s medical and biotechnology researchers in
creating stronger defenses to bioterrorism.  Univer
sities and research institutions in the Boston, and
across the country, have capitalized on the initiative, and are leading the way in developing several
new biodefense countermeasures, including vaccines and immunizations.  Additionally, the program
accelerated research at the National Institutes fo
r Health (NIH) on biological and chemical weapons,
and authorized the Food and Drug Administrati
on (FDA) to allow the safe emergency use of
unapproved medicines if needed to respond to an attack.
In 2006, Senator Kennedy worked to pass the
Pandemic and All-Hazards Preparedness Act,
which complements the activities of Project BioShield by streamlining the countermeasure
procurement process and making funding decisi
ons more transparent and predictable.  
Providing Resources for Medical Research  
           As a longtime champion of biomed
ical research, Senator Kennedy was the sponsor of the
National Institutes of Health (NIH) Revitalizati
on Act of 1993 and its reauthorization in 2003,
which included more than 20 titles directing th
e NIH to undertake research and conduct studies on
various diseases and conditions including AIDS, breast and ovarian cancer, osteoporosis and bone
disorders, contraception and infertility, and prosta
te cancer. The law also provided legislative
authority for various activities, such as the National Center for Human Genome Research, the
Office of Minority Health, and the Office of Research on Women’s Health. The bill permanently
lifted the ban on federally funded fetal tissue tran
splantation research and authorized the NIH to
conduct such research, created an Office of AIDS
Research whose director would disburse all
AIDS-related funding to the institutes, and required the NIH to convene an Interagency
Coordinating Committee on the Use of Animals in Research.
He has consistently and aggressively fought for increased research funding through the NIH
budget and his efforts paid off between FY 1998
– FY 20003, when NIH’s budget doubled from
$13.6 billion to $27 billion.  
Said Kennedy in 1993, “From a beginning as
a one-room Laboratory of Hygiene in 1887, the
National Institutes of Health have grown into
one of the foremost biomedical and behavioral
science research centers in the world. The resear
ch supported or conducted by NIH continues to
offer the promise of improving the health, welfare and quality of life of all Americans well into the
next century. With each year, the NIH discov
ers new scientific knowledge to improve the
prevention and treatment of disease.”  
Cancer
: Two decades earlier, Kennedy was respons
ible for legislation passed in 1971 that
quadrupled the amount of funding for cancer research and prevention, financed with an
independently-budgeted program within NIH.  The day before passage, Kennedy said, “The
conquest of cancer is a special problem of such
enormous concern to all Americans.  We can quote
statistics, but I think every one of us in this body, and most families across the country, have been
touched by this disease one way or another.”
In 1992, amid serious concerns regarding the quality of mammography, Kennedy
cosponsored and Congress passed the Mammography
Quality Standards Act to ensure the safety
and accuracy of mammograms, and to promote th
e use of the procedure.  Kennedy helped
introduce the reauthorization of the bill in the 108
th
Congress.  The reauthorization established
appropriations for breast cancer screening surveil
lance grants, which are used to evaluate screening
programs.
Senator Kennedy was a strong supporter of legisl
ation to increase research and education on
blood cancers, including leukemia, lymphoma, and mu
ltiple myeloma.  While over eleven percent of
all cancer deaths are attributed to these forms of
cancer, less than five percent of federal funds for
cancer research are dedicated prevention and treatm
ent.  The Hematological Cancer Investment and
Education Act authorized the National Institutes
of Health (NIH) to expand and coordinate blood
cancer research, and directed the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) to provide
information to patients and the general public to raise awareness of the disease.
On March 26, 2009, Senators Edward M. Kennedy and Kay Bailey Hutchison introduced
the 21st Century Cancer Access to Life-Saving Ea
rly detection, Research and Treatment (ALERT)
Act, a bill to comprehensively address cancer.  Th
e bill provides funding for promising research in
early detection, and supply grants for screening and
referrals for treatment. These measures will also
ensure patient access to prevention and early dete
ction, which is supplemented by increased access
to clinical trials and information.  The bill places
an emphasis on strengthening cancer research and
the urgent need for resources to both prevent and d
etect cancers at an early st
age. The bill strives to
give scientists the tools they need to fight cancer and to understand more thoroughly how the
disease works.
Senator Kennedy also fought to improve screening rates for diseases such as colorectal
cancer.  As he worked to ensure provisions gr
anting colorectal cancer screening to Medicare
beneficiaries, Senator Kennedy in the 108
th
Congress, introduced the “Eliminate Colorectal Cancer
Act”, which would have made colorectal cancer
screenings available to many Americans.
Senator Kennedy has been a strong advocate of health services research, including research
on what is effective in health care.  He suppor
ted provisions in the American Recovery and
Reinvestment Act of 2009, which will add $1.1
billion in research funds for comparative
effectiveness research.
Working to Reduce Medical Errors and Preventable Death
After learning that preventable medical errors
were the eighth leading cause of death in the
United States, Senator Kennedy pursued le
gislation to improve patient safety.  
In 2004, he sponsored a bill to provide legal protections to those willing to report medical
errors. By calling for a patient safety research en
vironment centered on reporting and analyzing as
opposed to punitive action, the bill encouraged
health care providers to report information on
errors.  The Senate and the House of Representati
ves both passed versions of Senator Kennedy’s
bill, but the legislation stalled in conference committee.  
In 2005 and again in 2007, Senator Kennedy
introduced bipartisan legislation to reduce
medical costs and improve the delivery of health ca
re by encouraging the use of health information
technology. In 2009 Senator Kennedy championed
provisions of the American Recovery and
Reinvestment Act which included $19 billion of in
centives for the adoption of health information
technology and strong protections for patient medical information.  
The Department of Health and Human Services
predicts that health IT can save Americans
$140 billion in health care costs each year.  Na
tionally accessible computerized medical records can
warn doctors when a prescription may be potentially harmful to a patient, regardless of where the
patient is located in the country.  In addition, he
alth IT can issue reminders for screening tests that
can prevent certain disorders, and enables doctors to
look at a patient’s entire medical record, and
obtain the most complete representation of a patien
t’s needs.  Senator Kennedy’s legislation will
accelerate the development of standards for health
IT, improve the effectiveness of this promising
technology, and provide grants to hospitals to convert to the system.  
Protecting Children and Consumers from th
e Deadly Effects of Tobacco Products
For over a decade Senator Kennedy led the batt
le to give the Food & Drug Administration
(FDA) power to regulate tobacco products, the most l
ethal of all consumer products.  The legislative
journey was long and arduous but, in the end, Kennedy’s bill marked more than a victory for him
and others who long championed the cause. It was a life saving act for the millions of children who
will be spared a lifetime of addiction and premature death.    
At the time of bill’s enactment, smoking was
the number one preventable cause of death in
America. Smoking and smoking-related illness killed
more people than automobile accidents, alcohol
abuse, illegal drugs, AIDS, murder, and suicide combined. Yet prior to Kennedy’s landmark
legislation, the FDA - the federal agency most re
sponsible for protecting the public health - was
powerless to deal with the enormous risks of tobacco use.
His legislation was supported by the Amer
ican Cancer Society, the American Heart
Association, the American Lung Association, the
American Medical Association, the Campaign for
Tobacco-Free Kids and over eighty other na
tional public health organizations.  
Kennedy’s bipartisan victory gives the FDA th
e authority to, among other provisions, make
tobacco products less toxic and less addictive for those who continue to use them, provides for
more explicit warning labels on the negative effects
of cigarettes, prevents the tobacco industry from
misleading the public about the dangers of smok
ing and prohibits tobacco advertising specifically
targeted to children.  The entire cost for FDA’s regulation is paid by the tobacco companies,
apportioned amongst the companies based on their market share.
When his bill was finally signed into law Ke
nnedy said, “Today is a day for special
celebration as President Obama signs into law this long-overdue authority for FDA to regulate
tobacco products.  Decade after decade, Big
Tobacco has seduced millions of teenagers into
lifetimes of addiction and premature death.  Enactmen
t of this legislation will finally put a stop to
that.  It is truly a life-saving
act, and a welcome demonstration th
at this Congress is capable of
enacting major health reform.”
Protecting Consumers through En
hanced Drug and Device Safety
While Senator Kennedy is well known for his ef
forts to seek bipartisan consensus to bring
about legislative success, he was never afraid to sa
il against the wind if the cause was right and the
end just.  
In an effort to increase consumer protection,
he was the author and sole Senate sponsor of
the Medical Device Amendments of 1976, which
provided comprehensive regulation of medical
devices for the first time ever.  
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